Information:

Basic Information about Barium in Drinking Water. (2013, September 17). Retrieved January 7, 2014.

City of Toronto, Statistics Canada. (2011). Area b- north york

City of Winnipeg, (2014). Water treatment program

Choudhury, H. World Health Organization, (2001).Barium and barium compounds.

Drinking Water Treatment Process – Water Quality – Drinking Water | City of Toronto. (n.d.). Retrieved January 11, 2015, from http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=baa807ceb6f8e310VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD

Helmenstine, A. (2014, November 27). What is alum?.

HowStuffWorks. (n.d.). Why Watersheds Matter. Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/conservation/issues/watershed2.htm

James, H., & Leffler, B. (2013, May 13). Canada’s Wastewater Regulations. Global News. Retrieved January 10, 2015, from http://globalnews.ca/news/566131/canadas-wastewater-regulations/

Manitoba Water Stewardship , (2010). Barium in manitoba well water.

Marsh. J.H..R. The Canadian Encyclopedia. (2013). Toronto feature: r.c. harris water treatment plant. Retrieved January 12, 2015 From http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/toronto-feature-rc-harris-water-treatment-plant/.

Northwest Territories Drinking Water Quality Database. (2008, September 12). Retrieved January 7, 2015.

Organic Matter and Barium Absorption by Plant Species Grown in an Area Polluted with Scrap Metal Residue. (2012). Applied and Environmental Soil Science,2012(476821), 7-7.

Patel, S. (2014, May 28). Water contaminant: Barium.

Protecting Water from Non-Point Source Pollution. (2002, January 1). Retrieved January 14, 2015, from http://protectingwater.com/

Sand Filtration. (n.d.). Retrieved January 13, 2015, from http://www.lenntech.com/sandfiltration.htm

Toxic Metal: The Health Dangers of Barium. (2013, May 24). Retrieved January 14, 2015, from http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/toxic-metal-the-health-dangers-of-barium/

Wastewater – Water – Services | City of Toronto. (2014, January 1). Retrieved January 13, 2015, from http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=8d3cfe4eda8ae310VgnVCM10000071d

What Happens When I flush? (2014, January 1). Metro Vancouver. Retrieved January 11, 2015, from http://www.metrovancouver.org/SERVICES/WASTEWATER/TREATMENT/Pages/default.aspx

What is activated charcoal and why is it used in filters?”  01 April 2000.  HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/question209.htm&gt;  13 January 2015.

What is a Watershed? (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2015, from http://watersheds101.ca/learn-about-watersheds/what-is-a-watershed

Images:

Barium [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barium

Emond, A. (Photographer). (2009, July 21). Wastewater Treatment [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://spacing.ca/montreal/2009/07/21/montreals-wastewater-treatment-part-i-a-history-of-problems/

Flack, D. (Photographer). (2010, December 03). The r.c. harris water treatment plant [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.blogto.com/arts/2010/12/the_rc_harris_water_treatment_plant/

Rao, G. (Designer). [Print Photo]. Retrieved from https://edc2.healthtap.com/ht-staging/user_answer/avatars/342438/large/open-uri20120806-24499-18j8agm.jpeg?1386606173

Sherman, P. (Artist). Fluorite Structure [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://www.wpclipart.com/rocks_minerals/F/Fluorite_structure.png.html

Sulphuric Acid [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.hydrochloricacidlr.com/prd/sulphuric-acid-commercial.jpg

(2014). How is lake water turned into drinking water? [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://www1.toronto.ca/city_of_toronto/toronto_water/files/pdf/water_treatment_process.pdf

Waste Water

http://um-images.s3.amazonaws.com/2009/07/treatmentplant_tanks.jpg

(Emond, 2009).

Waste…water?

Wastewater is a (pretty gross) mixture of liquids and solids that residents, businesses and institutions such as schools, flush down the toilets and pour down sinks and drains daily. The slushy mix then travels down the sewer system to one of four wastewater treatment plants in Toronto; The Ashbridges Bay, Highland Creek, Humber or North Toronto wastewater treatment plant (“Wastewater – Water – Services | City of Toronto”, 2014).

Treatment:

Before the actual treatment, the wastewater is passed through a bar screen (a screen with large vertical metal rods) to catch any large objects such as sticks or rocks. After the bar screen, the wastewater is slowed down before entering the grit tank, to give sand, gravel or any other heavy material the chance to settle to the bottom of the tank. All of these objects/debris is sent to the landfill (“Wastewater – Water – Services | City of Toronto”, 2014).

The first ‘treatment’ lets the wastewater sit in settling tank for several hours where eventually the solid particles will sink to the bottom. In the second treatment, a biological process of using micro-organisms helped to clean up the water. Oxygen is added to the water to provide a place for the micro-organisms to grow, these organisms later eat any small bit of organic material/waste (“What happens when I flush?”, 2014)- it’s as if they’re doing all the work for us in this stage! The water is later sent to a ‘clarifier’ where the organisms will settle to the bottom.

When both stages are complete, the water is disinfected with chlorine to be sure any harmful is gone before being released back into Lake Ontario (“Wastewater – Water – Services | City of Toronto”, 2014).

Standards:

Being being released back into Lake Ontario, the (previously) wastewater must meet some standards:

– The secondary treatment, the process using the organisms + machinery, must remove at least 95 percent of pollutants (James, 2013).